Sufism, often referred to as the mystical dimension of Islam, has its roots dating back to the early years of Islam. The term Sufism itself is derived from the Arabic word “suf,” which translates to “wool,” symbolizing the simplicity and humility associated with the early Sufis. Sufism is known for its emphasis on spiritual development, personal purification, and the search for a direct experience of God. The early history and development of Sufism is a fascinating topic that sheds light on the origins of this mystical tradition and its evolution over time. In this article, we will explore the early history and development of Sufism, including its key figures, teachings, and practices. Join us as we delve into the captivating world of Sufism and uncover its rich history and legacy.
The Emergence of Sufism in Islamic History
The Life and Teachings of the Prophet Muhammad
The origins of Sufism can be traced back to the early years of Islam, specifically to the life and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad, who was born in Mecca in the year 570 CE, received his first revelation from Allah at the age of 40. Over the next 23 years, he preached the message of Islam to the people of Mecca, Medina, and surrounding areas, and established a community of believers.
During his lifetime, Muhammad emphasized the importance of spiritual purification and inner transformation. He taught that true faith was not merely about outward obedience to religious rituals, but also about cultivating a deep connection with God through devotion, prayer, and contemplation. He encouraged his followers to seek knowledge, to be compassionate and merciful, and to live a life of simplicity and humility.
One of the key themes in Muhammad’s teachings was the concept of Tawhid, or the oneness of God. He emphasized that God was the only deity worthy of worship, and that all other forms of worship were false and idolatrous. He also taught that God was the source of all goodness and perfection, and that human beings were created to seek closeness to Him.
Muhammad’s teachings had a profound impact on the early Muslim community, and continue to influence the spiritual practices of Sufis today. His emphasis on inner transformation and spiritual purification laid the foundation for the development of Sufism as a mystical tradition within Islam.
The Development of Early Sufi Thought
The Influence of Quranic Mysticism
The early development of Sufi thought was heavily influenced by the mystical interpretations of the Quran. Sufis believed that the Quran contained hidden meanings and symbolism that could only be unlocked through a deep understanding of the Arabic language and the spiritual dimensions of Islam. They drew upon the works of earlier Islamic mystics, such as Al-Farabi and Ibn al-Arabi, who had explored the mystical dimensions of the Quran.
The Role of Early Sufi Scholars
Early Sufi scholars played a crucial role in shaping the development of Sufi thought. They were responsible for interpreting the teachings of Islam in a mystical context and developing a systematic approach to spiritual development. One of the most important early Sufi scholars was Abu Nasr al-Sarfiti, who is credited with developing the concept of “Tasawwuf,” or Sufism, as a distinct tradition within Islam.
The Emphasis on Personal Experience
Another important aspect of the development of early Sufi thought was the emphasis on personal experience. Sufis believed that spiritual knowledge could not be obtained through intellectual means alone, but required a direct experience of God. This led to the development of various Sufi practices, such as meditation, contemplation, and the repetition of religious prayers and hymns.
The Importance of Love and Devotion
Love and devotion also played a central role in the development of early Sufi thought. Sufis believed that the path to spiritual enlightenment required the cultivation of love and devotion towards God. This led to the development of various Sufi practices, such as the recitation of love poems and hymns, which were used to express the Sufi’s longing for God.
The Role of Music and Poetry
Music and poetry also played an important role in the development of early Sufi thought. Sufis believed that music and poetry could be used as a means of accessing spiritual realms and expressing the mystical dimensions of Islam. This led to the development of various Sufi musical traditions, such as the Qawwali, which are still popular today.
The Influence of Non-Islamic Mysticism
Finally, the development of early Sufi thought was also influenced by non-Islamic mysticism. Sufis drew upon the works of earlier mystics, such as the Persian poet Rumi, who had explored the mystical dimensions of other religions. This led to the development of a more inclusive approach to spirituality, which embraced the spiritual insights of other traditions.
Overall, the development of early Sufi thought was a complex and multifaceted process that drew upon a wide range of influences. Sufis sought to understand the mystical dimensions of Islam and to develop a systematic approach to spiritual development that emphasized personal experience, love, devotion, music, poetry, and the insights of other mystical traditions.
The Influence of Sufism on Islamic Civilization
The Role of Sufism in Islamic Philosophy and Theology
Sufism, also known as Tasawwuf, is a mystical tradition within Islam that has played a significant role in shaping Islamic philosophy and theology. This section will explore the various ways in which Sufism has influenced these fields and how it has contributed to the development of Islamic thought.
One of the primary ways in which Sufism has influenced Islamic philosophy and theology is through its emphasis on spiritual and experiential knowledge. Unlike traditional philosophical and theological approaches, which tend to focus on rational and intellectual knowledge, Sufism places great importance on the inner, spiritual dimension of Islam. This emphasis on spiritual knowledge has led to the development of a number of new approaches to Islamic philosophy and theology, including the integration of mystical and contemplative practices into these fields.
Another way in which Sufism has influenced Islamic philosophy and theology is through its focus on the concept of love. Sufism teaches that the ultimate goal of human existence is to develop a deep and intimate relationship with God, and that this relationship is based on love. This idea has had a profound impact on Islamic philosophy and theology, leading to the development of new theories and concepts related to love, such as the concept of “Divine Love” (Allah’s love for humanity) and the “Path of Love” (Tariqat al-Hulub).
Finally, Sufism has also had a significant impact on Islamic theology, particularly in terms of its approach to the nature of God. Sufism teaches that God is beyond all concepts and categories, and that human beings can only truly know God through direct experience. This idea has led to the development of new theological concepts and approaches, such as the idea of “Unity of Being” (Wahdat al-Wujud), which holds that all things are ultimately united in God.
Overall, the influence of Sufism on Islamic philosophy and theology cannot be overstated. Its emphasis on spiritual and experiential knowledge, the concept of love, and the nature of God have all contributed to the development of new ideas and approaches within these fields, and have helped to shape the overall direction of Islamic thought.
The Impact of Sufism on Islamic Art and Literature
Sufism, a mystical tradition within Islam, has had a profound impact on Islamic art and literature. The spiritual teachings of Sufism have inspired generations of artists and poets, who have sought to express the inner meaning of Islamic faith through their work.
One of the most significant contributions of Sufism to Islamic art and literature is the development of the muwashshahat genre. This form of poetry combines the spiritual themes of Sufism with the rhythms and melodies of Arabic music, creating a unique and powerful expression of the mystical experience. The muwashshahat have been widely celebrated for their beauty and depth, and continue to be studied and performed by scholars and musicians today.
In addition to poetry, Sufism has also influenced Islamic art in a number of other ways. Sufi symbols and motifs, such as the ta’wil (interpretation) of the Qur’an, have been incorporated into a wide range of artistic forms, from calligraphy and miniature painting to architecture and textiles. These works of art often reflect the inner states of the artist, who has sought to express the spiritual dimensions of Islamic faith through their creative work.
Furthermore, Sufism has also had a profound impact on Islamic literature, particularly in the realm of adab (literature). Sufi writers have produced a wide range of works, including poetry, prose, and spiritual autobiographies, that explore the inner meaning of Islamic faith and the spiritual path of the Sufi. These works have been widely read and studied, and have helped to shape the spiritual and intellectual culture of Islamic civilization.
Overall, the impact of Sufism on Islamic art and literature cannot be overstated. The spiritual teachings of Sufism have inspired generations of artists and writers, who have sought to express the inner meaning of Islamic faith through their work. Through their contributions to poetry, music, art, and literature, Sufis have helped to shape the cultural and intellectual landscape of Islamic civilization, and their legacy continues to be felt today.
The Early Sufi Masters and Their Contributions
Al-Hallaj and the Origins of Sufi Mysticism
Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani, also known as Al-Hallaj, is considered one of the most significant figures in the early history of Sufism. Born in the late 8th century in what is now modern-day Iraq, Al-Hallaj grew up in a family of weavers and eventually became a disciple of a well-known Sufi master.
Al-Hallaj’s teachings were heavily influenced by his belief in the oneness of God and the concept of divine love. He rejected the material world and sought to live a life of asceticism, focusing on his spiritual journey towards enlightenment. Al-Hallaj’s teachings were rooted in the idea that the path to spiritual enlightenment required the abandonment of material desires and the embrace of a life of devotion and selflessness.
One of Al-Hallaj’s most famous teachings is the concept of “fana fil-ladh,” or “annihilation in the presence of God.” This idea holds that the seeker must abandon their ego and individual identity in order to fully embrace the divine and achieve spiritual enlightenment.
Al-Hallaj’s teachings were not without controversy, however. His beliefs were considered radical and unorthodox by many in his time, and he was frequently criticized by both religious authorities and the secular powers of his day. Despite this, Al-Hallaj continued to spread his message, and his teachings were widely disseminated throughout the Islamic world.
Today, Al-Hallaj is remembered as one of the most important figures in the early history of Sufism, and his teachings continue to be studied and practiced by Sufis around the world. His legacy lives on as a testament to the power of divine love and the importance of the spiritual journey in the Sufi tradition.
Bayazid Bastami and the Concept of Divine Love
Bayazid Bastami, a Sufi mystic and poet from the 9th century, is considered one of the earliest and most influential figures in the development of Sufism. His teachings emphasized the concept of divine love, which he believed to be the key to achieving spiritual enlightenment.
According to Bayazid, the path to divine love was through the purification of the heart and the cultivation of certain spiritual qualities, such as humility, patience, and devotion. He believed that through these practices, a person could develop a deep and intimate relationship with God, which would lead to a state of spiritual unity and oneness.
Bayazid’s teachings on divine love were groundbreaking at the time, as they challenged traditional Islamic beliefs about the nature of God and the relationship between human beings and the divine. He emphasized the importance of personal experience and direct revelation in the pursuit of spiritual knowledge, rather than relying solely on scripture and religious doctrine.
Through his poetry and teachings, Bayazid helped to popularize the concept of divine love in Sufism, which would go on to become a central tenet of the mystical tradition. His influence can be seen in the works of later Sufi masters, who continued to explore and develop his ideas about the nature of spiritual love and the path to enlightenment.
The Spread of Sufism Across the Islamic World
The Role of Sufi Orders and Brotherhoods
The spread of Sufism across the Islamic world was facilitated by the establishment of Sufi orders and brotherhoods. These orders and brotherhoods played a crucial role in the dissemination of Sufi teachings and practices, as well as in the development of Sufi mysticism.
One of the earliest Sufi orders was the Khawaja-Ghulam order, founded by Khawaja Ghulam Farid in the 12th century in India. The order emphasized the importance of love and devotion to God, and its members were known for their ascetic lifestyle and devotional practices. Another prominent Sufi order was the Bektashi order, founded by Baha-ud-Din Naqshbandi in the 14th century in Central Asia. The Bektashi order emphasized the importance of the path of love and the spiritual relationship between the Sufi and God.
Other notable Sufi orders include the Qadiriyya order, founded by Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani in the 12th century, and the Naqshbandi order, founded by Baha-ud-Din Naqshbandi in the 14th century. These orders played a significant role in the spread of Sufism across the Islamic world, and their teachings and practices continue to influence Sufi mysticism today.
In addition to the establishment of Sufi orders, Sufi brotherhoods also played a significant role in the spread of Sufism. These brotherhoods were formed by groups of Sufis who sought to share their knowledge and experiences with one another, and to support each other in their spiritual journeys.
One of the most well-known Sufi brotherhoods was the Khalwatiyya order, founded by Umar Khalwad in the 13th century in India. The order emphasized the importance of purification of the soul, and its members were known for their ascetic lifestyle and devotional practices. Another prominent Sufi brotherhood was the Shadhiliyya order, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili in the 13th century in Morocco. The order emphasized the importance of love and devotion to God, and its members were known for their spiritual insight and ecstatic experiences.
Overall, the establishment of Sufi orders and brotherhoods played a crucial role in the spread of Sufism across the Islamic world. These orders and brotherhoods provided a means for Sufis to share their knowledge and experiences with one another, and to support each other in their spiritual journeys.
The Influence of Sufism on Islamic Mysticism and Spirituality
Sufism, often referred to as Islamic mysticism, has had a profound impact on the spiritual development of the Islamic world. As the tradition spread across the vast expanse of the Islamic empire, it brought with it a rich tapestry of spiritual practices and philosophical insights that have influenced generations of Muslims.
One of the key ways in which Sufism has influenced Islamic mysticism and spirituality is through its emphasis on the inner dimension of religious experience. Sufis have always stressed the importance of personal spiritual growth and the direct experience of the divine, rather than simply following the letter of the law. This has allowed Sufism to appeal to a wide range of people, from devout scholars to ordinary believers, who are seeking a deeper connection with the divine.
Another way in which Sufism has influenced Islamic spirituality is through its rich tradition of poetry and music. Sufi poets such as Rumi and Hafez have produced some of the most beautiful and inspiring poetry in the Islamic world, using the power of language and music to convey the depths of spiritual experience. These works have been passed down through the generations, continuing to inspire and uplift Muslims to this day.
In addition to its impact on spirituality, Sufism has also played a key role in shaping Islamic culture and society. Sufis have been instrumental in preserving and transmitting Islamic knowledge and traditions, as well as promoting social justice and human rights. They have also been known for their ecumenical approach, seeking to bridge the gaps between different religious communities and fostering a spirit of unity and cooperation.
Overall, the influence of Sufism on Islamic mysticism and spirituality cannot be overstated. It has been a vital force in the development of Islamic culture and society, inspiring generations of Muslims to seek a deeper connection with the divine and striving to live a more spiritually fulfilling life.
The Contribution of Sufism to World Spirituality
The Impact of Sufism on Christian Mysticism
The impact of Sufism on Christian mysticism has been significant, as the two traditions share a common heritage and many spiritual practices. Both traditions emphasize the importance of contemplation, meditation, and direct experience of the divine, and have been influenced by each other over the centuries.
One of the key ways in which Sufism has influenced Christian mysticism is through the concept of “divine love.” Sufi poetry and literature have been a major source of inspiration for Christian mystics, who have drawn on the imagery and symbolism of Sufism to express their own spiritual experiences.
Another area in which Sufism has had an impact on Christian mysticism is in the practice of “heart-centered” spirituality. Sufis emphasize the importance of the heart as the center of spiritual experience, and this concept has been embraced by many Christian mystics, who have sought to cultivate a deeper connection with God through the practice of contemplative prayer and meditation.
Sufism has also influenced Christian mysticism through its emphasis on the importance of the “spiritual guide.” In both traditions, the role of the spiritual guide is central to the spiritual journey, as they provide guidance, support, and spiritual insight to those on the path.
Overall, the impact of Sufism on Christian mysticism has been significant, and the two traditions continue to influence and enrich each other to this day.
The Influence of Sufism on Eastern Spiritual Traditions
The Historical Context of Sufism’s Influence on Eastern Spirituality
Sufism’s impact on Eastern spiritual traditions cannot be fully understood without considering the historical context in which it emerged. This section will explore the cultural, social, and religious factors that facilitated the exchange of ideas between Sufism and other Eastern spiritual traditions.
The Spread of Islam in Asia
The spread of Islam in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia, played a crucial role in the exchange of ideas between Sufism and Eastern spiritual traditions. The establishment of Islamic centers of learning, such as the Nizamiyya colleges, provided a platform for the exchange of ideas between Islamic scholars and Indian philosophers.
The Receptiveness of Eastern Spiritual Traditions to Sufism
Sufism’s appeal to Eastern spiritual traditions was due in part to the receptiveness of these traditions to the mystical aspects of Islam. Many Eastern spiritual traditions, such as Hinduism and Buddhism, already had a rich history of mysticism and meditation practices. The inclusion of Sufi practices and ideas within these traditions expanded their spiritual repertoire and allowed for new insights into the nature of reality and the self.
The Translation of Sufi Texts into Local Languages
The translation of Sufi texts into local languages was a crucial factor in the dissemination of Sufi ideas in Eastern spiritual traditions. Translations of Sufi poetry and mystical literature into Persian, Urdu, and other regional languages allowed for a wider audience to engage with Sufi ideas and practices. This cross-cultural exchange enriched both Sufism and the Eastern spiritual traditions it influenced, leading to the development of new mystical practices and philosophical insights.
The Characteristics of Sufism that Appealed to Eastern Spiritual Traditions
Sufism’s emphasis on spiritual purification, devotion, and direct experience of the divine resonated with the spiritual aspirations of Eastern spiritual traditions. Sufi practices such as dhikr (remembrance of God), meditation, and spiritual poetry were readily incorporated into the spiritual repertoire of these traditions.
The Concept of Tawajjuh (Turning Towards God)
One of the key concepts in Sufism that appealed to Eastern spiritual traditions was tawajjuh, or turning towards God. This concept, which emphasizes the direct experience of the divine through the heart and inner being, resonated with the mystical aspirations of Eastern spiritual traditions.
The Importance of Music and Poetry in Sufism
Music and poetry played a significant role in Sufi practice, and their incorporation into Eastern spiritual traditions enriched these traditions’ cultural and spiritual expressions. Sufi poetry, in particular, was widely translated and adapted, becoming an integral part of the literary and spiritual heritage of many Eastern traditions.
The Impact of Sufism on Eastern Spiritual Traditions
The influence of Sufism on Eastern spiritual traditions has been profound and enduring. The exchange of ideas and practices between Sufism and these traditions has led to the development of new mystical practices, philosophical insights, and artistic expressions. The syncretic nature of this exchange has enriched both Sufism and the Eastern spiritual traditions it has influenced, creating a shared spiritual heritage that continues to inspire spiritual seekers today.
Challenges and Critiques of Sufism in Modern Times
The Relevance of Sufism in the Contemporary World
Sufism as a Source of Spiritual Nourishment
In the contemporary world, Sufism remains a vital source of spiritual nourishment for many people seeking a deeper understanding of themselves and their place in the universe. Sufism’s emphasis on the inner dimensions of Islam and its focus on personal spiritual growth have made it a popular choice for Muslims looking to cultivate a more intimate relationship with God.
Sufism as a Bridge between Cultures and Faiths
Sufism’s universal message of love, compassion, and self-improvement has also made it a valuable resource for people of all faiths and backgrounds. Many individuals who may not identify as Muslim but are drawn to the spiritual teachings of Sufism have found in it a way to connect with the divine and cultivate inner peace. In this way, Sufism serves as a bridge between cultures and faiths, promoting understanding and unity in a world that often seems divided by religious and cultural differences.
Sufism as a Means of Resistance and Empowerment
In some parts of the world, Sufism has become a means of resistance and empowerment for individuals and communities facing oppression and marginalization. Sufi teachings have inspired movements for social justice and human rights, and Sufi communities have provided safe spaces for people to come together and find support in the face of adversity.
Sufism as a Source of Inspiration for the Arts
Finally, Sufism continues to be a source of inspiration for the arts, with many artists and musicians drawing on Sufi poetry and music to express their own spiritual journeys. The rich tradition of Sufi music, known as Qawwali, has become a beloved genre around the world, bringing Sufi teachings to a wider audience and serving as a reminder of the power of music to uplift the soul.
Overall, the relevance of Sufism in the contemporary world cannot be overstated. Its emphasis on spiritual growth, love, and compassion continues to resonate with people of all backgrounds, providing a much-needed antidote to the divisions and conflicts that often characterize our world today.
The Role of Sufism in Promoting Interfaith Dialogue and Understanding
In modern times, Sufism has been criticized for its role in promoting interfaith dialogue and understanding. Critics argue that Sufism is too focused on mysticism and spirituality, and does not pay enough attention to the social and political issues that are central to many faith traditions. However, proponents of Sufism argue that its emphasis on love, compassion, and spiritual connection can help to bridge the divide between different faiths and promote greater understanding and tolerance.
Some of the ways in which Sufism has been used to promote interfaith dialogue and understanding include:
- Mystical experiences: Sufism places a strong emphasis on the direct, personal experience of the divine, which can help to bridge the gap between different faiths. Many Sufis believe that the essence of all religions is the same, and that the differences between them are mainly superficial. This perspective can help to foster greater understanding and respect between people of different faiths.
- Common values: Sufism shares many values with other faiths, such as love, compassion, and forgiveness. By emphasizing these shared values, Sufism can help to build bridges between different faiths and promote greater understanding and cooperation.
- Spiritual practices: Sufism has a rich tradition of spiritual practices, such as meditation, contemplation, and prayer, which can help to cultivate inner peace and harmony. These practices can be shared across different faiths, helping to create a sense of shared spiritual heritage and fostering greater understanding and tolerance.
- Historical connections: Sufism has historical connections with many different faiths, including Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism. By drawing on these historical connections, Sufism can help to promote greater understanding and respect between different faiths.
Overall, while there are criticisms of Sufism’s role in promoting interfaith dialogue and understanding, many proponents of Sufism believe that its emphasis on love, compassion, and spiritual connection can help to build bridges between different faiths and promote greater understanding and tolerance.
The Future of Sufism and Its Contribution to Human Spirituality
The Evolution of Sufism in the 21st Century
The Impact of Globalization on Sufism
In the 21st century, globalization has played a significant role in the evolution of Sufism. With the increasing mobility of people across borders, Sufism has spread to different parts of the world, blending with local religious and cultural traditions. This has led to the emergence of new Sufi communities and the development of diverse Sufi practices.
The Rise of Sufi Music and Art
Sufi music and art have gained international recognition in the 21st century, with many artists incorporating Sufi elements into their work. This has helped to popularize Sufism and increase its appeal to a wider audience. Additionally, Sufi music and art have been used as a tool for promoting interfaith dialogue and understanding.
The Influence of Modern Technology on Sufism
The advent of modern technology has also had an impact on Sufism in the 21st century. With the rise of social media and online platforms, Sufi teachings and practices have become more accessible to people around the world. This has facilitated the spread of Sufism and enabled Sufi communities to connect with each other across borders.
The Role of Sufism in Promoting Peace and Tolerance
In a world marked by conflict and division, Sufism has played a significant role in promoting peace and tolerance. Many Sufi leaders and communities have been actively involved in interfaith dialogue and peacebuilding initiatives, working to promote understanding and cooperation between different religious groups.
The Challenges Facing Sufism in the 21st Century
Despite its many contributions, Sufism also faces challenges in the 21st century. In some parts of the world, Sufism has come under attack from extremist groups who view it as a threat to their ideology. Additionally, the commercialization of Sufi music and art has led to concerns about the authenticity and integrity of these traditions.
Overall, the evolution of Sufism in the 21st century reflects its continued relevance and adaptability in a rapidly changing world. As Sufism continues to spread and evolve, it remains an important source of spiritual wisdom and guidance for people of all backgrounds.
The Potential of Sufism to Foster Global Harmony and Peace
- Sufism, with its emphasis on spiritual development and inner transformation, has the potential to foster global harmony and peace.
- Through its teachings, Sufism encourages individuals to cultivate empathy, compassion, and tolerance, which are essential qualities for building a more peaceful and harmonious world.
- By promoting a deeper understanding of the human soul and its connection to the divine, Sufism can help individuals transcend their narrow personal interests and develop a more holistic perspective on life.
- Sufism’s message of unity and interconnectedness can also help bridge cultural and religious divides, fostering greater understanding and cooperation among diverse communities.
- By encouraging individuals to focus on their inner lives and cultivate spiritual virtues, Sufism can help create a more compassionate and peaceful world, where individuals are motivated to work together for the common good.
1. What is Sufism?
Sufism is a mystical tradition within Islam that emphasizes the inner spiritual dimension of the faith. It is also known as Tasawwuf, and its followers are called Sufis. Sufism seeks to cultivate a personal and direct experience of God through contemplation, meditation, and ascetic practices.
2. Who founded Sufism?
Sufism has its roots in Islamic history, and it is difficult to pinpoint a single founder. Some sources attribute the origin of Sufism to the Prophet Muhammad himself, while others believe that it was developed by his companions and followers after his death. Sufism has also been influenced by other mystical traditions, such as Christian Gnosticism and Jewish Kabbalah.
3. When did Sufism start?
The exact date of the emergence of Sufism is unknown, but it is believed to have originated in the early centuries of Islam, around the 8th and 9th centuries. The first known Sufi texts date back to the 9th century, and the tradition continued to develop and spread throughout the Islamic world in the following centuries.
4. What are some of the key beliefs and practices of Sufism?
Sufis believe in the oneness of God and the importance of direct spiritual experience. They practice various forms of meditation, breath control, and other ascetic practices to achieve spiritual purification and closeness to God. Sufis also emphasize the importance of love and devotion as a means of approaching God.
5. How has Sufism influenced Islamic history and culture?
Sufism has had a profound impact on Islamic history and culture. It has played a role in the spread of Islam, particularly in Africa and Asia, and has helped to shape Islamic art, music, and literature. Sufism has also been a source of inspiration for many Muslim scholars, leaders, and mystics throughout history.
6. What is the relationship between Sufism and other forms of Islam?
Sufism is generally considered to be a part of Islam, although some orthodox Muslims have criticized it as being too mystical and not strictly adherent to Islamic law. Sufis themselves see their tradition as being in harmony with the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and the early Islamic community.