Islamic philosophy, a profound and captivating field of study, has been an intellectual endeavor embraced by countless scholars throughout history. However, a question that has perplexed minds for centuries remains unanswered: who can be attributed as the first Islamic philosopher? As we traverse the intricacies of this discipline, delving into the minds of the great thinkers who shaped it, we aim to unravel the enigmatic origins of Islamic philosophy. Seeking the pioneers of this rich tradition, we shall embark on a journey through the annals of time, unearthing the roots of this philosophical movement and painting a vivid picture of the intellectual landscape that birthed it. Be prepared to journey through the veiled corridors of the past, where ancient wisdom and timeless insights await discovery.
Uncovering the Origins of Islamic Philosophy
Tracing the roots of Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy has a rich and complex history that can be traced back to the early centuries of the Islamic civilization. The origins of Islamic philosophy can be understood by examining its relationship with Greek philosophy and the early development of philosophical ideas within the Islamic world.
Influence of Greek philosophy on Islamic thought
One of the key factors that contributed to the development of Islamic philosophy was the influence of Greek philosophy. During the Islamic Golden Age, which spanned from the 8th to the 14th centuries, Muslim scholars had access to a vast array of Greek philosophical texts that had been translated into Arabic. These texts included the works of renowned Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, and Plotinus.
The translation movement, initiated by the Abbasid caliphs in the 8th century, played a pivotal role in bringing Greek philosophical ideas into the Islamic world. Muslim scholars eagerly engaged with these translated works, seeking to understand and interpret them within an Islamic framework. They saw in Greek philosophy a wealth of knowledge and wisdom that could be integrated with Islamic theology and spirituality.
Early development of Islamic philosophical ideas
While the translation movement provided the foundation for the development of Islamic philosophy, it was the efforts of early Muslim philosophers that truly shaped its unique character. One of the key figures in the early development of Islamic philosophy was Al-Kindi (c. 801-873 CE). Often referred to as the “Philosopher of the Arabs,” Al-Kindi sought to reconcile Greek philosophy with Islamic theology.
Al-Kindi’s works encompassed a wide range of topics, including metaphysics, ethics, and the nature of God. He argued for the existence of God based on rational arguments and developed a comprehensive philosophical system that integrated Greek philosophy with Islamic thought.
Another important figure in the early development of Islamic philosophy was Al-Farabi (c. 872-950 CE). Al-Farabi, often referred to as the “Second Teacher” (after Aristotle), built upon the ideas of Al-Kindi and further developed a comprehensive philosophical system that sought to harmonize reason and revelation.
Al-Farabi’s works covered a wide range of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, and metaphysics. He argued for the importance of cultivating virtuous qualities in order to achieve a harmonious society and emphasized the role of the philosopher as a guide for the community.
In conclusion, the roots of Islamic philosophy can be traced back to the influence of Greek philosophy and the early development of philosophical ideas within the Islamic world. The translation movement brought Greek philosophical texts into the Islamic world, while early Muslim philosophers like Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi developed their own unique philosophical systems that integrated Greek philosophy with Islamic thought. These early developments laid the foundation for the flourishing of Islamic philosophy in subsequent centuries.
The Predecessors: Proto-Islamic Philosophical Thought
Before the emergence of Islamic philosophy as a distinct field of study, there were philosophical ideas and discussions in the Arabian Peninsula. These early philosophical thoughts, often referred to as proto-Islamic philosophical thought, laid the foundation for the development of Islamic philosophy.
Pre-Islamic Arabian Philosophies and Their Impact
The pre-Islamic Arabian philosophies were diverse and varied, reflecting the multicultural and multi-religious nature of the Arabian Peninsula before the advent of Islam. These philosophies were influenced by various sources, including Greek, Persian, and Indian philosophical traditions.
One prominent figure in pre-Islamic Arabian philosophy was Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism had a significant impact on the philosophical landscape of the Arabian Peninsula, particularly in the areas of ethics, cosmology, and eschatology. The concept of a dualistic universe, with a constant struggle between good and evil, found its way into early Islamic philosophical discussions.
Another influential pre-Islamic Arabian philosophy was the Hanifism, a monotheistic religious movement that predates Islam. Hanifism emphasized the belief in a single, transcendent God and rejected idolatry and polytheism. This philosophy laid the groundwork for the later development of Islamic theology and philosophy.
Influence of Persian and Indian Philosophies on Early Islamic Thought
In addition to the pre-Islamic Arabian philosophies, Persian and Indian philosophies also played a significant role in shaping early Islamic thought. The Persian Empire had a rich philosophical tradition, influenced by both Zoroastrianism and Greek philosophy. Persian philosophical ideas, such as the concept of the soul’s immortality, the pursuit of wisdom, and the search for truth, found resonance within Islamic philosophical circles.
Indian philosophies, particularly those rooted in Hinduism and Buddhism, also had an impact on early Islamic thought. The Islamic world had extensive contact with the Indian subcontinent through trade and cultural exchange, leading to the assimilation of Indian philosophical ideas. Concepts such as the nature of the self, karma, and the cyclical nature of existence found their way into Islamic philosophical discourse.
As Islamic philosophy began to take shape, it drew upon these diverse philosophical traditions, synthesizing them with the teachings of Islam. The thinkers of the time sought to reconcile reason and revelation, creating a unique philosophical tradition that would flourish throughout the Islamic Golden Age.
The Pioneers of Islamic Philosophy
Al-Kindi: The Philosopher of the Arabs
Al-Kindi, also known as “the philosopher of the Arabs,” was a pioneering figure in the development of Islamic philosophy. Born in the 9th century in Kufa, Iraq, Al-Kindi made significant contributions to various fields of knowledge, including philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. His works played a crucial role in shaping the early Islamic philosophical tradition.
Al-Kindi’s contributions to Islamic philosophy
Al-Kindi’s philosophical works covered a wide range of topics, including metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, and the nature of God. He was particularly interested in reconciling Greek philosophy, especially the works of Aristotle and Neoplatonism, with Islamic thought. Al-Kindi believed that reason and philosophy were compatible with Islamic theology, and he sought to demonstrate the harmony between the two.
One of Al-Kindi’s notable contributions was his emphasis on the role of reason in understanding the world and acquiring knowledge. He argued that reason is a gift from God and that humans should use it to explore and comprehend the natural and metaphysical realms. Al-Kindi’s approach to philosophy was deeply influenced by his belief in the unity of knowledge, where he saw philosophy, theology, and science as interconnected disciplines that could contribute to a holistic understanding of reality.
Exploring Al-Kindi’s approach to blending Greek and Islamic thought
Al-Kindi played a crucial role in translating and interpreting Greek philosophical texts into Arabic, making them accessible to the Muslim world. He believed that Greek philosophy contained valuable insights that could enrich Islamic thought, and he sought to integrate these ideas into an Islamic framework. Al-Kindi’s synthesis of Greek and Islamic thought paved the way for future Islamic philosophers to engage with and build upon the philosophical traditions of both civilizations.
One of Al-Kindi’s most significant efforts in blending Greek and Islamic thought was his work on the reconciliation of philosophy and theology. He argued that philosophy could provide rational justifications for Islamic theological beliefs, allowing Muslims to have a deeper understanding and appreciation of their faith. Al-Kindi’s approach was instrumental in establishing a philosophical tradition within Islamic theology, known as Kalam, which aimed to defend and explain Islamic doctrines through rational arguments.
In conclusion, Al-Kindi stands as a pioneer of Islamic philosophy, making significant contributions to the field and laying the foundation for future scholars to explore the intersections between Greek and Islamic thought. His emphasis on reason, unity of knowledge, and the compatibility of philosophy and theology shaped the development of Islamic philosophy and set the stage for the emergence of other influential Islamic philosophers in the centuries that followed.
Al-Farabi: The Second Teacher
Al-Farabi, also known as Alpharabius, was one of the pioneers of Islamic philosophy. Born in the 9th century, he played a significant role in the development of Islamic thought and philosophy. Al-Farabi’s works encompassed a wide range of topics, including politics, ethics, and metaphysics, which greatly influenced later Islamic philosophers.
Contributions to Islamic Philosophy
Al-Farabi’s contributions to Islamic philosophy were multifaceted and profound. He built upon the works of earlier Greek philosophers, particularly Aristotle and Plato, and integrated their ideas into the Islamic intellectual tradition. His aim was to reconcile Greek philosophy with Islamic theology, creating a synthesis that would be accessible to Muslim scholars.
One of Al-Farabi’s notable contributions was his theories on politics. He believed that the ideal state should be governed by a virtuous leader, known as the “philosopher-king.” According to Al-Farabi, this ruler should possess both intellectual and moral virtues, and govern based on reason and justice. His political ideas were influenced by Plato’s concept of the philosopher-king but were adapted to fit within the context of an Islamic society.
In addition to his political theories, Al-Farabi also delved into the realm of ethics. He emphasized the importance of moral character and believed that individuals should strive to cultivate virtuous qualities such as courage, justice, and wisdom. Al-Farabi saw ethics as a means to achieving individual and societal well-being, as virtuous actions would lead to a harmonious and prosperous society.
Metaphysics and Cosmology
Al-Farabi’s exploration of metaphysics and cosmology further expanded the scope of Islamic philosophy. He explored the nature of existence, the relationship between God and the world, and the concepts of unity and multiplicity. Al-Farabi’s metaphysical ideas were deeply rooted in Islamic theology, as he sought to reconcile philosophical concepts with the teachings of Islam.
In conclusion, Al-Farabi was a pivotal figure in the development of Islamic philosophy. His contributions to political philosophy, ethical philosophy, and metaphysics laid the foundation for later Islamic thinkers. By integrating Greek philosophy into the Islamic intellectual tradition, Al-Farabi created a unique philosophical framework that continues to shape Islamic thought to this day.
Ibn Sina (Avicenna): The Prince of Physicians and Philosophers
Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna, is widely regarded as one of the pioneers of Islamic philosophy. Born in 980 CE in present-day Uzbekistan, Ibn Sina’s intellectual prowess and diverse contributions to various fields, including philosophy, medicine, and theology, have left an indelible mark on the development of Islamic thought.
Ibn Sina’s multifaceted contributions to Islamic philosophy
Ibn Sina’s contributions to Islamic philosophy are vast and encompass a wide range of topics. His philosophical works cover areas such as metaphysics, ethics, logic, and epistemology. One of his most renowned philosophical works is “The Book of Healing,” a comprehensive philosophical and scientific encyclopedia that explores various branches of knowledge.
In his metaphysical inquiries, Ibn Sina focused on the nature of existence, the concept of being, and the existence of God. He developed a complex system of thought that sought to reconcile Islamic theology with Aristotelian philosophy, drawing from both Islamic and Greek intellectual traditions.
Ibn Sina’s ethical philosophy centered around the pursuit of virtue and the cultivation of moral character. He believed that the ultimate goal of human life was to attain happiness and fulfillment by aligning one’s actions with moral principles. His ethical works, such as “The Book of Directives and Remarks,” provide guidance on how to lead a virtuous life and achieve spiritual enlightenment.
Analyzing Ibn Sina’s works on philosophy, medicine, and theology
In addition to his contributions to philosophy, Ibn Sina was also a renowned physician and made significant advancements in the field of medicine. His medical masterpiece, “The Canon of Medicine,” served as a comprehensive medical encyclopedia and remained a standard textbook in European universities for centuries. This work not only presented a systematic approach to diagnosis and treatment but also incorporated philosophical and metaphysical principles into medical theory.
Ibn Sina’s philosophical and medical works were deeply intertwined, as he believed that the study of the human body and its functions were essential for understanding the nature of the soul and its connection to the physical world. His holistic approach to medicine incorporated elements of philosophy, psychology, and spirituality, emphasizing the interplay between the physical and metaphysical realms.
In the realm of theology, Ibn Sina sought to reconcile Islamic teachings with rational philosophy. He explored theological concepts such as divine unity, prophethood, and the nature of revelation, attempting to provide rational justifications for these beliefs. His theological works, such as “The Book of Salvation,” aimed to bridge the gap between faith and reason, offering a philosophical framework for understanding religious doctrines.
Ibn Sina’s multifaceted contributions to Islamic philosophy, medicine, and theology have earned him the title of “The Prince of Physicians and Philosophers.” His works continue to be studied and revered by scholars across the world, shaping the course of Islamic intellectual history and leaving a lasting legacy in the field of philosophy.
Al-Ghazali: The Reviver of the Faith
One of the most influential figures in the history of Islamic philosophy is Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. Born in 1058 CE in Tus, Iran, Al-Ghazali emerged as a prominent scholar and philosopher during the Islamic Golden Age. He played a crucial role in shaping the development of Islamic philosophy and theology, earning him the title of “The Reviver of the Faith.”
Al-Ghazali’s impact on Islamic philosophy and theology was profound. His works, such as “The Incoherence of the Philosophers” and “The Revival of the Religious Sciences,” addressed various philosophical and theological issues that were prevalent during his time. Al-Ghazali sought to reconcile reason and revelation, bridging the gap between philosophy and Islamic theology.
In “The Incoherence of the Philosophers,” Al-Ghazali presented a critique of Aristotelian philosophy, which was dominant in Islamic intellectual circles at the time. He argued against the philosophers’ reliance on reason alone and emphasized the importance of revelation and religious experience in understanding the truth. Al-Ghazali’s critique challenged the prevailing philosophical views of his time, sparking a significant shift in Islamic philosophical discourse.
Furthermore, Al-Ghazali’s works had a lasting impact on subsequent generations of Islamic philosophers. His emphasis on the role of spirituality and inner experience in attaining knowledge influenced thinkers such as Ibn Arabi and Rumi. Al-Ghazali’s ideas laid the foundation for a more holistic approach to Islamic philosophy, one that integrated reason, revelation, and spirituality.
Al-Ghazali’s contributions to Islamic philosophy and theology were not limited to his writings. He also played a significant role in promoting religious education and reform. Al-Ghazali’s teachings and ideas continue to shape the intellectual landscape of Islamic philosophy, making him a pivotal figure in the history of Islamic thought.
In conclusion, Al-Ghazali’s impact on Islamic philosophy and theology cannot be overstated. His critiques of Aristotelian philosophy and emphasis on the role of revelation and spirituality in attaining knowledge revolutionized Islamic intellectual discourse. Al-Ghazali’s works continue to be studied and revered by scholars, ensuring his enduring legacy as “The Reviver of the Faith.”
Ibn Rushd (Averroes): The Commentator
Ibn Rushd, also known as Averroes, was one of the pioneers of Islamic philosophy. Born in Cordoba, Spain, in 1126 CE, he played a significant role in unraveling the origins of Islamic philosophy through his extensive commentaries on the works of Aristotle.
Ibn Rushd’s role as a commentator on Aristotle’s works
Ibn Rushd’s scholarly contributions were primarily focused on interpreting and explaining the teachings of Aristotle, the renowned ancient Greek philosopher. He believed that Aristotle’s philosophy could be reconciled with Islamic theology, and he sought to bridge the gap between the two traditions.
To achieve this, Ibn Rushd wrote numerous commentaries on Aristotle’s works, including his famous commentaries on Aristotle’s “Metaphysics,” “Physics,” and “De Anima.” These commentaries were not mere summaries or explanations; rather, they delved into the intricacies of Aristotle’s thought and presented a comprehensive analysis of his ideas.
Ibn Rushd’s commentaries were characterized by their depth and clarity. He skillfully elucidated the complex concepts put forth by Aristotle, providing invaluable insights into the philosopher’s theories. His commentaries became highly regarded within the Islamic world and beyond, serving as a foundation for the development of Islamic philosophy.
Ibn Rushd’s influence on both Islamic and Western philosophy
Ibn Rushd’s commentaries on Aristotle’s works had a profound impact on both Islamic and Western philosophy. His interpretations of Aristotle’s philosophy influenced Islamic scholars, who incorporated his ideas into their own works. Ibn Rushd’s writings became an integral part of the Islamic philosophical tradition, shaping the discourse on various philosophical themes.
Furthermore, Ibn Rushd’s works were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages, introducing Aristotle’s philosophy to the Western world. His commentaries played a crucial role in the reception of Aristotle’s ideas in Europe, serving as a bridge between the Islamic and Western philosophical traditions. The translations of his works contributed to the revival of Aristotelian thought in Western philosophy and laid the groundwork for the development of Scholasticism.
In summary, Ibn Rushd’s role as a commentator on Aristotle’s works made him a pivotal figure in the history of Islamic philosophy. His commentaries not only clarified and expanded upon Aristotle’s ideas but also influenced the development of Islamic philosophy itself. Moreover, his works had a lasting impact on Western philosophy by introducing Aristotle’s thought to the Western intellectual tradition. Ibn Rushd’s contributions continue to be studied and appreciated by scholars across different cultural and philosophical contexts.
Debating the First Islamic Philosopher
Challenging the Traditional Narrative
The traditional narrative surrounding the first Islamic philosopher often centers around a single individual who laid the foundation for Islamic philosophy. However, this notion has been increasingly challenged by scholars who argue for a more nuanced understanding of the origins of Islamic philosophy. Rather than attributing the birth of Islamic philosophy to a single person, it is important to recognize the collective contributions of early Islamic thinkers.
One of the main reasons for challenging the traditional narrative is the lack of definitive historical evidence pinpointing the exact identity of the first Islamic philosopher. The early Islamic period was a time of intellectual flourishing, with a wide range of scholars, philosophers, and theologians contributing to the development of Islamic thought. It is therefore difficult to determine a single figure as the sole progenitor of Islamic philosophy.
Furthermore, Islamic philosophy emerged as a result of a rich synthesis of various intellectual traditions, including Greek, Persian, and Indian philosophies. This synthesis took place over a span of several centuries and involved the translation and interpretation of numerous philosophical texts. It is therefore misleading to attribute the origins of Islamic philosophy to a single individual, as it was a collective endeavor that drew from diverse sources.
Another aspect that challenges the traditional narrative is the existence of multiple schools of thought within Islamic philosophy. Early Islamic thinkers held differing views on various philosophical issues, such as the nature of God, the relationship between reason and revelation, and the concept of free will. These diverse perspectives contributed to the development of different philosophical traditions within Islamic philosophy, making it difficult to identify a single founder.
In conclusion, the traditional narrative of the first Islamic philosopher is being increasingly challenged by scholars who recognize the collective nature of the origins of Islamic philosophy. Rather than attributing the birth of Islamic philosophy to a single individual, it is important to acknowledge the contributions of numerous early Islamic thinkers and the synthesis of various intellectual traditions. By challenging the traditional narrative, we gain a more comprehensive understanding of the complex and diverse origins of Islamic philosophy.
The Evolution of Islamic Philosophical Thought
Islamic philosophical thought has a rich and complex history that spans several centuries. From its earliest origins to its current form, Islamic philosophy has undergone significant evolution, reflecting the diverse intellectual currents and cultural influences that have shaped it over time.
Tracing the progression of Islamic philosophy over time reveals a fascinating journey of intellectual exploration and adaptation. The roots of Islamic philosophy can be traced back to the 8th century, during the Islamic Golden Age, when Muslim scholars began engaging with Greek philosophy and translating and interpreting the works of Aristotle, Plato, and other Greek thinkers. This encounter with Greek thought provided the impetus for the development of a uniquely Islamic philosophical tradition.
The Influence of Greek Philosophy
The encounter with Greek philosophy sparked a profound intellectual transformation in the Islamic world. Greek philosophical ideas, particularly those of Aristotle, were incorporated into Islamic thought, leading to the emergence of new philosophical schools and the development of distinct modes of philosophical inquiry. Islamic philosophers sought to reconcile Greek philosophical ideas with Islamic theology and metaphysics, giving rise to a synthesis known as “falsafa.”
The Development of Falsafa
Falsafa, meaning “philosophy” in Arabic, became a vibrant intellectual tradition within the Islamic world. Islamic philosophers sought to explore the nature of reality, the existence of God, the human soul, and the relationship between reason and revelation. They engaged in rigorous philosophical discourse, drawing on both Greek philosophy and Islamic theological concepts.
Prominent Islamic philosophers, such as Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, and Avicenna (Ibn Sina), made significant contributions to the development of Islamic philosophy. Al-Kindi, often referred to as the “Philosopher of the Arabs,” played a crucial role in translating Greek philosophical texts into Arabic and synthesizing Islamic theology with philosophical ideas. Al-Farabi, known as the “Second Teacher” after Aristotle, expanded on Al-Kindi’s work and developed a comprehensive philosophical system that integrated metaphysics, ethics, and political theory.
Diverse Philosophical Schools
As Islamic philosophy evolved, it gave rise to a multitude of philosophical schools and traditions. One of the most influential schools was the Illuminationist School, founded by the Persian philosopher Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi. This school emphasized the role of intuitive knowledge and sought to illuminate the spiritual truths through intellectual inquiry.
Another significant school was the Transcendent Philosophy, also known as the School of Isfahan. Led by Mulla Sadra, this school focused on the concept of “existence” and the relationship between the material and spiritual realms. Mulla Sadra’s philosophy had a profound impact on later Islamic thinkers and continues to be studied and debated to this day.
In addition to these schools, other philosophical traditions emerged, such as the Peripatetic School, which drew heavily from Aristotle’s teachings, and the Theological School, which sought to harmonize philosophy with Islamic theology.
FAQs – Who Was the First Islamic Philosopher? Unraveling the Origins of Islamic Philosophy
What is Islamic philosophy?
Islamic philosophy refers to the philosophical and intellectual tradition that emerged within the Islamic world. It encompasses various branches of knowledge, such as metaphysics, ethics, logic, epistemology, and the study of the nature of existence and reality. Islamic philosophy is deeply rooted in Islamic theology and draws heavily from the teachings of the Quran and the Hadith.
Who is considered the first Islamic philosopher?
Al-Kindi, also known as Alkindus, is widely regarded as the first Islamic philosopher. Born in the early 9th century in present-day Iraq, Al-Kindi made significant contributions to several fields, including philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. He endeavored to reconcile Greek philosophy with Islamic teachings, particularly focusing on Aristotelian and Neoplatonic thought.
What were Al-Kindi’s major contributions to Islamic philosophy?
Al-Kindi made substantial contributions to the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics, and the philosophy of science. He emphasized the importance of reason and rational inquiry while exploring philosophical questions within an Islamic context. Al-Kindi also played a crucial role in translating many Greek philosophical texts into Arabic, thus preserving and disseminating ancient philosophical knowledge within the Islamic world.
Did Islamic philosophy exist before Al-Kindi?
While Al-Kindi is considered the first prominent Islamic philosopher, it is worth noting that there were earlier Muslim thinkers who engaged in philosophical discussions. Some of these thinkers, such as Al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham and Al-Farabi, laid the groundwork for Islamic philosophy by contributing to various fields of knowledge, including mathematics, astronomy, and political philosophy. However, Al-Kindi’s extensive body of philosophical writings distinguishes him as the first Islamic philosopher in a more comprehensive sense.
How did Al-Kindi’s philosophy influence later Islamic thinkers?
Al-Kindi’s philosophical works played a significant role in shaping the trajectory of Islamic philosophy. His writings paved the way for future Islamic philosophers, including Al-Farabi, Avicenna (Ibn Sina), and Averroes (Ibn Rushd). Al-Kindi’s emphasis on the integration of reason and religion laid the foundation for the development of Islamic theology, ethics, and metaphysics. His translations of Greek philosophical texts also facilitated the assimilation of Hellenistic philosophy into Islamic thought, fostering a unique philosophical tradition.
Are there any other notable Islamic philosophers following Al-Kindi?
Absolutely. Islamic philosophy witnessed remarkable development and flourishing after Al-Kindi. Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Averroes are among the most renowned figures in Islamic philosophy, contributing extensively to various fields and refining Al-Kindi’s ideas. Additionally, numerous other philosophers emerged during the Islamic Golden Age, each making unique contributions to the rich tapestry of Islamic philosophical thought. Some notable names include Al-Ghazali, Alhazen, Ibn Arabi, and Ibn Khaldun, among others.
Is Islamic philosophy still influential today?
Islamic philosophy continues to have a lasting impact on philosophical and intellectual discourse worldwide. Its influence extends beyond religious and cultural boundaries, as many of its ideas have been assimilated into Western philosophy and played a crucial role in the development of Renaissance thought. Moreover, Islamic philosophy contributes significantly to contemporary debates in fields such as ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. Its legacy serves as a testament to the enduring intellectual achievements of Islamic civilization.